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Be MECE—mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive | Powerful Problem Solving

This is part 1 of our 4-part series on MECE thinking — part 1, part 2, part 3, and part 4.

A central tenet of structuring your problem solving is your considering all the possible answers to your question exactly once. To do so, you must organize these answers in a way that is mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive (sometimes written as “mutually exclusive and completely exhaustive”)—or MECE (pronounced “mee see”).

MECE thinking is popular with strategy consultancies (see, for instance, Davis’ paper, referenced below, for its use at McKinsey). In fact, the case interview that these companies use to filter their applicants require you to think in a MECE way. It is understandable: Striving to make your thinking MECE usually results in you being more clear and more creative. So, let’s look at what it means and how you can become an effective MECE thinker.

Mutually exclusive” means “no overlaps”

“Mutually exclusive”—ME—means “no overlaps.” At the crossroad in the figure below, you can go straight or turn left but, at any one time, you cannot do both: Doing one precludes you from doing the other, so the two options are disjoint, they don’t overlap.

Mutually exclusive—ME—means no overlaps

“Mutually exclusive”—ME—means “no overlaps.” At the crossroad, you can go straight or turn left but not both.

When you are mutually exclusive in your thinking, you don’t consider any one answer more than once. Mutually exclusive thinking forces you to consider the details, seeing the individual tree as opposed to the forest. It helps you make each element differ from the others.

So, if your key question is “How can I go from New York City to London?” and you organize means of transportation by dividing them between “by flying” and “by traveling by sea,” you are organizing the possible solutions to your problem in mutually exclusive groups, since flying precludes you from traveling by sea at the same time and vice versa.

Collectively exhaustive” means “no gaps”

Groups of answers are collectively exhaustive when, among themselves, they include all the possible answers to your question.

Collectively exhaustive—CE—means "no gaps"

“Collectively exhaustive”—CE—means “no gaps.” You’ve considered all possible answers once or more.

Collectively exhaustive thinking means that you do not forget possible solutions; that is, you’re being innovative, considering even “dumb” ideas.

Thinking in a collectively exhaustive fashion when you’re considering ways of going from NYC to London means that you might consider ways other than just the easy-to-think-of airline or boat solutions. Maybe you can bring London to you? Maybe you can project yourself in London? What else can you think of? Try it out and compare your take with mine (below).

Thinking MECE means that you're considering all possible answers exactly once

Thinking MECE means that you’re considering all possible answers exactly once. There are no overlaps (ME) and no gaps (CE).

So, whenever you’re facing a new problem, actively look for a MECE way to categorize its root causes or its solutions, and ensure that all your question maps are MECE.

In day-to-day life, you can also train yourself to be better at thinking in a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive way: Each time you’re looking at a series of items, ask yourself if they are MECE. Whenever you see or hear a list of things—listening to the latest tirade of your favorite politician or the verbose argument of a friend—ask yourself if it is indeed MECE. Become obsessive about it. If you start waking up in the middle of the night yelling “This is not MECE!,”  you’re probably on a good track!

Use help wherever you can

Sometimes, you’ll be lucky enough to have existing frameworks that you can use to decompose your problem in MECE parts. If one of these is insightful enough for your situation, use it.

If you’re not that lucky, you’ll have to develop your own MECE set. (That will be both tedious and rewarding!) Then it may be a good idea to enlist others to question your logic and help you push yourself.

Learn more about thinking MECE

Check out my book, in which MECE thinking is everywhere (pp. 10, 11, 58–61, etc.)

See Austhink’s take on MECE.

See the other parts on MECE thinking — part 1, part 2, part 3, and part 4.

Here’s my take on how I may go from NYC to London.


Chevallier, A. (2016). Strategic Thinking in Complex Problem Solving. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.

Davis, Ian, David Keeling, Paul Schreier and Ashley Williams. “The Mckinsey Approach to Problem Solving.” McKinsey Staff Paper, no. 66 (2007): 27.

Eppler, Martin J. “Toward a Pragmatic Taxonomy of Knowledge Maps: Classification Principles, Sample Typologies, and Application Examples.” In Information Visualization, 2006. IV 2006. Tenth International Conference on, 195-204: IEEE, 2006.

Gardner, Howard. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic books, 1985.

Kazancioglu, Emre, Ken Platts and Pete Caldwell. “Visualization and Visual Modelling for Strategic Analysis and Problem-Solving.” In Information Visualisation, 2005. Proceedings. Ninth International Conference on, 61-69: IEEE, 2005.

van Gelder, T. (2010). “What is MECE, and is it MECE?”. Retrieved October 4, 2014, from https://timvangelder.com/2010/06/04/what-is-mece-and-is-it-mece/.

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